Wifi WiMax and Security in NFC

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Wifi WiMax and Security in NFC

Course UNIK4700, UNIK9700
Title Wifi; WiMAX; Security in NFC
Lecture date 2014/10/10 0915-1145
presented by Mohsen, Qihaoli, Seraj Fayyad
Objective Present the first assignments:
  • Mohsen: "Wifi long range standards"
  • Qihaoli: "WiMAX"
  • Seraj: "Security in NFC"
Learning outcomes * get feedback on how to structure a presentation
Pensum (read before)
References (further info)
Keywords NFC, Wifi, 802.16, Wireless Security

this page was created by Special:FormEdit/Lecture, and can be edited by Special:FormEdit/Lecture/Wifi WiMax and Security in NFC.


Handouts h14: Media:20141010Bluetooth-NFC_handouts.pdf


Related topics

Keywords: WLAN, Wifi, IEEE 802.11,

⌘ WLAN standard IEEE_802.11

The newest member in the 802.11 family are the 802.11ac and the 802.11u standards

IEEE 802.11ac

802.11ac is introduced to operate in the 5 GHz band, and has, according to the Cisco White Paper, the following features:

  • More channel bonding, increased from the maximum of 40 MHz in 802.11n, and now up to 80 or even 160 MHz (for 117% or 333% speed-ups, respectively)
  • Denser modulation, now using 256 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), up from 802.11n's 64QAM (for a 33% speed burst at shorter, yet still usable, ranges)
  • More multiple input, multiple output (MIMO). Whereas 802.11n stopped at four spatial streams, 802.11ac goes all the way to eight (for another 100% speed-up).

Second-generation products should also come with a new technology, multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO). Whereas 802.11n is like an Ethernet hub that can only transfer a single frame at a time to all its ports, MU-MIMO allows an AP to send multiple frames to multiple clients at the same time over the same frequency spectrum.

IEEE 802.11u

802.11u is a new interworking standard, and allows users to connects to access points, based on their relations to other Wifi providers. As an example: A user of "UiO" may connect to "UNIK" based on the 802.11u agreement between UiO and UNIK.


[Source:Cisco White Paper "801.11ac: The Fifth Generation of WiFi]

Keyword Wifi WiMax and Security in NFC

Wifi WiMax and Security in NFC
Wikipedia http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.11
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Courses and Thesis

⌘ Earlier Presentations on WLAN systems

Susana Rodriguez de Novoa:

⌘"WLAN communication" 802.11


[Presentation G. Fettweis, IEEE VTC forum Baltimore], http://www.ieeevtc.org/plenaries/vtc2007fall/28.pdf

⌘ 802.11 ad standard

  • addresses 60 GHz communications, 5.7 GHz available bandwidth
  • Wavelength mm
  • antenna on chip
Application areas:
  • set-top boxes, TV, high-bandwidth cable replacement
  • direct backbone links
  • industrial construction area
  • communications in public places
Conclusions from NY University, [1]
  • Measurements at 38 and 60 GHz show that NLOS links can be made with steerable antennas, with 20 – 30 dB loss compared to free space line-of-sight.
  • A link was always made using steerable antennas within a 200 m cell radius.
  • 38 GHz showed more NLOS links than 60 GHz
  • Cellular AOA distributions show BS should be deployed site-specifically (due to shadowing of buildings)
  • Worst RMS delay spread link was 122ns, similar for peer- to-peer and cellular
Further reading

Building .... Networks
History, Now and Future
Pioneers: Maxwell, Hertz,...
1G, 2G,... 5G networks
Frequencies and Standards
Future Challenges
A-Basics of Communication
Electromagnetic Signals
Radio Communication Principles
Digital communication: Signal/Noise Ratio
Signal strength and Capacity: Shannon
B-Antennas and Propagation
Free Space Propagation
Antennas, Gain, Radiation Pattern
Multipath Propagation, Reflection, Diffraction
Attenuation, Scattering
Interference and Fading (Rayleigh, Rician, …)
Mobile Communication dependencies
C-Propagation models
Environments (indoor, outdoor to indoor, vehicular)
Outdoor (Lee, Okumura, Hata, COST231 models)
Indoor (One-slope, multiwall, linear attenuation)
D-System Comparison
Proximity: RFID, NFC
Short Range: ZigBee, Bluetooth, ANT+,...
Mobile Network mobility
IP mobility
F-Network Building
Future Networks
5G Heterogeneous Networks
Basic Internet
Video Distribution Networks
Coverage simulations
Coverage simulations
Traffic simulations
Network Capacity simulations
Building .... Networks

⌘ Mobile Communication Spectrum

Spectrum requirements
  • increased spectrum need
    • due to mobile broadband
    • indoor coverage, replacement of fixed networks
  • low frequencies for increased range, thus coverage

Mobile Spectrum.png

Source: http://www.spectrum2020.ca/presentations/Rappaport.pdf

⌘ The challenge of area coverage

Land area Norway, 385.178 km^2 - 7500 basestasjons http://www.mynewsdesk.com/no/telenor/pressreleases/sjekk-naar-du-faar-4g-der-du-bor-1399662

  • Tanzania 947,303 km^2 = 3 x Norway,
  • Mali 1.240.000 km^2 = 4 x Norway
  • DRC 2.345.000 km^2 = 8 x Norway

⌘ Throughput increase


[Presentation G. Fettweis, IEEE VTC forum Baltimore], http://www.ieeevtc.org/plenaries/vtc2007fall/28.pdf

⌘Example of propagation

Results for UMTS (worst case), with 3 sector antenna

  • Range of unloaded cell is 700 m in urban pedestrian
  • With loaded cell, assumed increase of noise by 10 dB, max cell radius 390 m
  • vehicular with typical range of 3600 m (unloaded) and 1900 m (loaded)
  • Next: examples and simulations

⌘Oslo simulations, performed for GSM at 1800 MHz

Transmission at 25 dBm

Transmission at 35 dBm


how much does the range decrease when reducing the power by 10 dB?

(Source: Helge Dommarsnes, Telenor Mobil)

⌘Difference GSM - UMTS

Illustration of Q_16 parameter in GSM
  • Frequency
  • Receiver structure
    • GSM sliding window of 16
    • UMTS Rake receiver

Q16ratio:The ratio of the power inside to the power outside a window of duration 16 . For each IR the window is slid to find the position with highest power inside the window.

(Source:R Rækken, G. Løvnes, Telektronikk)

⌘Results of link level simulation


Simulations to achieve minimum W-CDMA using given QoS parameter: here voice service

(Source: Eurescom P921, D2)

⌘UMTS cell planning

Figure: UMTS macro and microcells in a 6-operator environment

⌘UMTS traffic simulations


Note: voice, Low constraint delay (LCD, typical streaming) and Unconstrained data delay (UDD, typical ftp, email)

(Source:Telenor FoU report 3-99)

⌘Cell Breathing effect in UMTS


View: http://www.eurescom.de/~public-web-deliverables/P900-series/P921/D2/index.html for "live simulation" and "Cell Ranges for GSM1800 and UMTS Services"

(Source: Eurescom P921, D2)

⌘Network planning

GSM versus UMTS

  • UMTS is interference limited
  • GSM is build on frequency reuse in the cells, while UMTS has the same frequency in neighbouring cells
  • UMTS range is capacity limited
  • UMTS requires simultaneous cell planning and network dimensioning
  • handover is network based, the handset announces, network performs the handover
  • In UMTS a mobile phone can be connected to two cells at the same time, the handover is then called soft handover. Handover between sectors in of the same antenna are called softer handover

⌘Cell cover and macro-diversity areas

Outcome of Eurescom P921 system level simulations


(Source: Eurescom P921, D2)

⌘Smart antennas and MIMO measurements




Example GSM: the upload band is from 880-915 Unik/MHz (in Europe), which is 35 Unik/MHz. With a carrier of 200 kHz we have 175 channels, which have to be divided between the various operators.

UMTS specifications


⌘LTE technology

  • Presentations and discussion on topic

LTE 450 pro's and con's from Ovum conf. publication (.pdf)

  • Band 31, limited bandwidth of 2 x 10 MHz

LTE450 Ovum pres.png

⌘ IMT-A (4G): WiMAX, LTE

IMT-Advanced (IMT-A) is often called the 4G standard for Mobile Communications. Both WiMAX through the 802.16e and LTE provide technologies for achieving higher data throughput.

Though LTE was originally designed to work in the

Evolution of radio spectrum, and frequency bands for LTE http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/cellulartelecomms/lte-long-term-evolution/lte-frequency-spectrum.php

LTE FDD band, source: radioelectronics.com

[[File:LTE-TDD_band.png|500px|LTE TDD band, source: radioelectronics.com

Presentations from earlier courses


⌘Verizon Wireless reveals LTE speeds

  • from Mobile Business Briefing 7 December 2009
    • Verizon Wireless: average downlink 5-12 Mb/s and uplink 2-5 Mb/s (LTE)

⌘Unstrung.com - Wireless News, 24 Nov 2009

11:20 AM -- Four Finnish operators got some Long Term Evolution (LTE 2.6 GHz) and WiMax spectrum for just €3.8 million (US$5.6 million). (See Finland Awards 4G Spectrum.)

  • LTE FDD Elisa Corp. bid €834,700 ($1.2 million) for 50 MHz;
  • TeliaSonera AB (Nasdaq: TLSN) bid €819,200 ($1.2 million) for 50 MHz; and
  • DNA Oy bid € 675,700 ($1 million) for 40 MHz.
  • WiMax spectrum (TDD, now LTE TDD), Pirkanmaan Verkko Oy bid € 1,468,200 ($2.2 million) for 50 MHz.


  • Norway 229 million Norwegian Kronor ($41 million) in 2007
  • Sweden 2 billion Swedish Kronor ($304 million) in 2008.

Sources: See Craig Goes to Norway, Sweden Awards 4G Spectrum, Swedish 4G, Telenor to Test Huawei LTE, and TeliaSonera: We'll Do 4G in 2010

⌘Norway: NPT license conditions

from: [Norwegian Post Telecommunication Regulator (NPT) http://www.npt.no/portal/page/portal/PG_NPT_NO_NO/PAG_NPT_NO_HOME/PAG_RESSURSER_TEKST?p_d_i=-121&p_d_c=&p_d_v=104880]

  • 2500-2690 MHz and 2010-2025 MHz. The new licenses expire 31 December 2022.
  • five sub-bands, each consisting of a number of contiguous frequency blocks.
  • six different regions.

The five sub-bands are:

  • (A) The 2010 MHz band, consisting of a single 15MHz block.
  • (B) Five unpaired blocks of 10MHz at the centre of the 2.6GHz band (2570 MHz to 2620 MHz).
  • (C) Eight paired blocks of 2x5 MHz in the 2.6 GHz band (2500-2540 MHz paired with 2620-2660 MHz).
  • (D) Three unpaired blocks of 10 MHz below sub-band B in the 2.6 GHz band (2540-2570 MHz).
  • (E) Three unpaired blocks of 10 MHz at the top end of the 2.6 GHz band (2660-2690 MHz)

Note: Unpaired is TDD operation, while paired is FDD operation

⌘ Price policy

The total amount will consist of

  • a fixed component per contiguous spectrum block
  • a variable component that will depend on the bandwidth at disposal and the population in the geographical area
  • Estimate for 2008
    • annual administrative charge of (NOK 25000 x number of contiguous blocks)
    • + (NOK 1600 x bandwidth in MHz) x (regional percentage of Norway';s population).

<green>Q: take the Norwegian population and calculate the licence costs per region</green>

D1-Proximity Systems

Ali Zaher - NFC (2012)