A3-Digital Communication principles

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⌘ A3-Digital Communication Principles

Building .... Networks
History, Now and Future
Pioneers: Maxwell, Hertz,...
1G, 2G,... 5G networks
Frequencies and Standards
Future Challenges
A-Basics of Communication
Electromagnetic Signals
Radio Communication Principles
Digital communication: Signal/Noise Ratio
Signal strength and Capacity: Shannon
B-Antennas and Propagation
Free Space Propagation
Antennas, Gain, Radiation Pattern
Multipath Propagation, Reflection, Diffraction
Attenuation, Scattering
Interference and Fading (Rayleigh, Rician, …)
Mobile Communication dependencies
C-Propagation models
Environments (indoor, outdoor to indoor, vehicular)
Outdoor (Lee, Okumura, Hata, COST231 models)
Indoor (One-slope, multiwall, linear attenuation)
D-System Comparison
Proximity: RFID, NFC
Short Range: ZigBee, Bluetooth, ANT+,...
Mobile Network mobility
IP mobility
F-Network Building
5G and Future Networks
5G Heterogeneous Networks
Basic Internet
Video Distribution Networks
Coverage simulations
Coverage simulations
Traffic simulations
Network Capacity simulations
Building .... Networks

⌘ Chapter A3 - Digital Communication Principles

  • radio wave propagation
  • Electromagnetic signals
  • Nyquist Theorem
  • Signal/noise ratio

A4-Signal Strength and Capacity

  • Shannon Theorem
  • Signal strength

⌘ Nyquist Theorem

  • Shannon: If a function contains no frequencies higher than [cycles/s], it is completely determinded by giving its ordinates at serires of points spaced seconds apart
  • band-limitation versus time-limitation
  • Fourier transform

[source: Shannon, 1948]

⌘ Hartley's law

  • The amount of information that may be transmitted over a system is proportional to the bandwidth of that system.

  • where m is the “number of current values”, which in modern terms would be called “the size of the signalling alphabet”

Why did it take twenty years to fill the gap between Hartley’s law and Shannon’s formula? The only necessary step was to substitute 1+C/N for m in Hartley's law. Why, all of a sudden, did three or more people independently “see the light” almost at the same time? Why did neither Nyquist, nor Hartley or Küpfmüller realize that noise, or more precisely the signal-to-noise ratio play as significant a role for the information transfer capacity of a system as does the bandwidth?

[source: L. Lundheim, Telektronikk 2002]

⌘ Electromagnetic channel

Fig1-2architeurewireless.png The radio channel is always affected by noise, which restricts the information flow to the receiver

[Source:Neelakanta et. al., Fig1.2]

⌘ Sources of noise

* Electronic parts of transmitter and receiver (components)
  • Spurious electromagnetics (lines radiating on the chip)
  • Fluctuations in power (switching CMOS circuits)


  • In-band interference
  • out-of band interference, e.g. GSM/NMT interference
  • radio channel, e.g. scattering, multi-path

[Source:Wikipedia, "interference"]

Noise floor in a receiver

  • further explanations: Telektronikk 4/95, Rækken and Løvnes, Multipath propagation

⌘ Signal/noise ratio


where P is average power

  • why talking about noise?
  • dB,
  • near-far problem

[source: Wikipedia]


  • in-band: a source having the same signal
  • out-of-band: modulations/filters which are not perfect

Figure: In-band (top) and out-of-band interference (bottom)

explain Fourier-transform and overlap

Figure: Cell capacity (left) and system capacity (right)

The capacity of a system consists of both the cell capacity (depending mainly on OSI layer 1-3) and on network design, meaning: how much interference do I get from other cells.

Figure: UMTS macro and microcells in a 6-operator environment

In a network where the available 60 MHz in the UMTS band are distributed to 6 operators, each operator will only have 2x 10 MHz available for operation, which typically means that one frequency block (5MHz) will be used for micro-cells and the other frequency block (5 Unik/MHz) will be used for macro-cells.

Figure: Factors influencing interference (6-operator environment)

The amount of interference will depend on

  1. the filter characteristics of the handset ( check separation)
  2. the distance from the transmitter
  3. the transmit power

Receiver sensitivity might play a role, but is considered as being constant in the selected frequency band.

Interference of WLAN cells in a 3-floor building

802.11b has only three non-overlapping channels, ch 1, 6, and 11. In a normal business building radio waves will propagate not only along one floor, but also through the roof/floor. The visibility of WLAN will make it necessary to plan the frequencies in order to support the person on the ground floor with wireless access.

UMTS code usage for capacity and coverage

In UMTS coverage and capacity can be adopted not only through the power level of the transmitting unit, but also through the selection of codes. If the same code or code-class is selected in neighbouring cells, a simultaneous connection to the mobile phone can be achieved. This will increase the coverage (why?) but decrease the total capacity of the system (why?)