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⌘TOC on AA1-History

Building .... Networks
History, Now and Future
Pioneers: Maxwell, Hertz,...
1G, 2G,... 5G networks
Frequencies and Standards
Future Challenges
A-Basics of Communication
Electromagnetic Signals
Radio Communication Principles
Digital communication: Signal/Noise Ratio
Signal strength and Capacity: Shannon
B-Antennas and Propagation
Free Space Propagation
Antennas, Gain, Radiation Pattern
Multipath Propagation, Reflection, Diffraction
Attenuation, Scattering
Interference and Fading (Rayleigh, Rician, …)
Mobile Communication dependencies
C-Propagation models
Environments (indoor, outdoor to indoor, vehicular)
Outdoor (Lee, Okumura, Hata, COST231 models)
Indoor (One-slope, multiwall, linear attenuation)
D-System Comparison
Proximity: RFID, NFC
Short Range: ZigBee, Bluetooth, ANT+,...
Mobile Network mobility
IP mobility
F-Network Building
5G and Future Networks
5G Heterogeneous Networks
Basic Internet
Video Distribution Networks
Coverage simulations
Coverage simulations
Traffic simulations
Network Capacity simulations
Building .... Networks

⌘The real researchers

  • Michael Faraday (1791 - 1867), focussing on the static fields
  • James Clerk Maxwell (1831 - 1879), establishing the Maxwell equations for the interaction of the electrical and the magnetic component of an electromagnetic wave
  • Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857 - 1894) experimented the theory for the understanding of electromagnetic waves

[Source:Magne Pettersen, Wikipedia]

⌘Heinrich Hertz - The electromagnectic wave

HertzWaves.png Hertz did not realise the practical importance of his experiments. He stated that, "It's of no use whatsoever[...] this is just an experiment that proves Maestro Maxwell was right - we just have these mysterious electromagnetic waves that we cannot see with the naked eye. But they are there." [3]

Asked about the ramifications of his discoveries, Hertz replied, "Nothing, I guess." [3]


The experiments, demonstrating the relation between the electrical and the magnetic component of the electromagnetic wave, was probably the most important discovery of Heinrich Hertz.

⌘Inventor: Guglielmo Marconi

Marconi watching associates raise kite antenna at St. John's, December, 1901 Guglielmo Marconi (1874 - 1937) experimented with Hertz waves in 1894/1895

  • used 50000 UK pound on a transatlantic experiment in 1901
  • brought electromagnetics to life

[Source:Magne Pettersen, Wikipedia]

Note: Marconi

The first experiment failed, as a storm took down the antenna, and Marconi got bankrupt. But he managed to establish new funds for the first transatlantic communication based on radio signals. Recommended reading https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi

⌘Inventor: Antonio Meucci

Drawing of phone communication Antonio Meucci

  • Invented the phone in 1856
  • transferred voice from one room to another one
  • surveillance of an ill person
  • registered patent in 1871
    • failed to name "electromagnetics"
    • Graham Bell patented in 1876

[Source: Sandra Meucci, "Antonio and the electric scream: The man who invented the telephone", Branden Books, 2010]

⌘The real researchers - Graham Bell


  • Graham Bell (1874 -1922) invented the phone,...
  • but who invented also the mobile phone back in 1924?

Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study

[Source:Magne Pettersen, Wikipedia]