AA2-Mobile Generations

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⌘AA2-Mobile Generations

Building .... Networks
History, Now and Future
Pioneers: Maxwell, Hertz,...
1G, 2G,... 5G networks
Frequencies and Standards
Future Challenges
A-Basics of Communication
Electromagnetic Signals
Radio Communication Principles
Digital communication: Signal/Noise Ratio
Signal strength and Capacity: Shannon
B-Antennas and Propagation
Free Space Propagation
Antennas, Gain, Radiation Pattern
Multipath Propagation, Reflection, Diffraction
Attenuation, Scattering
Interference and Fading (Rayleigh, Rician, …)
Mobile Communication dependencies
C-Propagation models
Environments (indoor, outdoor to indoor, vehicular)
Outdoor (Lee, Okumura, Hata, COST231 models)
Indoor (One-slope, multiwall, linear attenuation)
D-System Comparison
Proximity: RFID, NFC
Short Range: ZigBee, Bluetooth, ANT+,...
Mobile Network mobility
IP mobility
F-Network Building
5G and Future Networks
5G Heterogeneous Networks
Basic Internet
Video Distribution Networks
Coverage simulations
Coverage simulations
Traffic simulations
Network Capacity simulations
Building .... Networks

⌘History of wireless communications


while 1G and 2G were all about radio interfaces,

  • 3G and Beyond 3G (B3G) are all about services
  • 4G is using mobile broadband everywhere
  • 5G will be truly heterogeneous network


Technology acceptance curve

⌘Speed of technology


  • "There might be a need for 5 computers" (1943 Watson(?), 1951 Hartree)
  • Mobile: NMT, GSM, GPRS, EDGE, UMTS, 3G, HSDPA, SMS, EMS, MMS,... DVB-H,...


L1-4.png Future communication systems, composed of IMT-A (ground), High altitude platform (HAP) and satellite

%Wireless standardisation forums

  • ITU-T
  • ETSI
  • IEEE
  • 3GPP (3G Partnership Project) and 3GPP2
  • Bluetooth SIG, zigbee alliance

and a lot of others addressing interworking

  • OMA (open mobile alliance)
  • UMTS forum
  • ...

⌘Frequency spectrum


⌘Wireless technologies


Ultra short range



  • Bluetooth, WiMedia,
  • Zigbee, ANT+, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)

Local area

  • Wireless LAN, 802.11 family
  • Wireless telephony: DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications)

Mobile Communications:

  • 1G: NMT
  • 2G: GSM
  • 3G: UMTS
  • 4G: LTE - IMT-A
  • 5G

Long Range Wide Area Network (LPWAN)

  • LoRa,
  • Sigfox,
  • Ingenu-RPMA,
  • DASH7,
  • Weightless

Mobile satellite communication:

  • Geostationary (Inmarsat A, C, M) or low orbit (e.g. Iridium)

⌘Trend: Personal Networks

  • Between devices
  • To your neighbour
  • create spontaneous networks (and your personal sphere)
  • access everyware
  • access from all devices
  • access for everyone
    • availability
    • affordability (price)

⌘Expectations towards global coverage

  • According to Ericsson, Mobile Technologies are available for 50% of the world's population (2013), and the coverage will increase to 75% by 2017.
  • According to Internet.org (Facebook, Opera Software, ....), only 1/3 of the world's population has access to the Internet (2013).
  • An extrapolation by the Basic Internet Foundation points out that even in 2017 about 45% of the population will not have access to Internet, mainly due to affordability. Thus they promote the free access to basic information of the Internet, being text and pictures.