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⌘ C2-Outdoor communications

⌘Measurements in rural farmland

  • Typical IR from Farm_1, 1718 MHz. Total received power was –84 dBm, 20 dB above GSM sensitivity level


(Source:R Rækken, G. Løvnes, Telektronikk)

These questions are valid for all of the following impulse responses

  • from delay, calculate reflection factor and free space attenuation
  • describe characteristics of reflection

⌘ Measurements in rural farmland

  • Typical IR from Farm_2, 953MHz. Total received power was <93dBm


(Source:R Rækken, G. Løvnes, Telektronikk)

⌘Measurements in cities

  • Typical IR from City street measurements, 1950 MHz, Oslo. Output power 25 dBm ( in mW?). Omnidirectional -Dipoles used as transmit and receive antennas.


(Source:R Rækken, G. Løvnes, Telektronikk)

why almost equal distribution? What effect?

⌘ETSI urban pedestrian

  • Outdoor to indoor and pedestrian test environment, based on Non LOS (NLOS)
  • Base stations with low antenna height are located outdoors, pedestrian users are located on streets and inside buildings and residences
  • TX power is 14 dBm, f = 2000 MHz and r is distance in m
  • Assumes average building penetration loss of 12 dB
  • Path loss model: [dB]

⌘COST Walfish-Ikegami Model

  • taking into consideration propagation over roof tops
  • assumes antennas below roof top
  • Path loss model: [dB]

⌘Alternative Street Microcell Path-loss

  • Outdoor propagation, consists of "adding of paths"
  • c is angle of street crossing. c = 0.5 for 90 deg crossing
  • k_0 = 1 and d_0 = 0
  • Path loss model: [dB]
  • illusory distance with

⌘ETSI vehicular

  • larger cells (typical few km)
  • TX power 24 dBm for mobile phone, transmit antenna height over roof top (typical 15 m), distance r in km, f = 2000 MHz
  • Path loss model: [dB]

⌘Forest, 961 MHz measurements

  • slightly hilly terrain


(Source:István Z.Kovács,Ph.D.Lecture,CPK, September6, 2002;p.27/45 )

⌘Forest, 1890 MHz measurements

  • slightly hilly terrain


(Source:István Z.Kovács,Ph.D.Lecture,CPK, September6, 2002, p.27/45)


establish table (L free space, pedestrial, outdoor, ...) with typical values for 900 and 2000 MHz and distances from 100 to 3000 m