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BB23.A +Based of the integration of hardware and software elements, WSNs will be developed in accordance with redundancy and fault tolerance requirements, considering the execution of in-field optimization techniques to adapt and enhance the performance of the overall distributed system within the target scenario, particularly taking into account wireless communication reliability and QoS. For this, the sensor to sensor communication technology integration will contemplate both the data distribution among the sensor platforms and also the connectivity capabilities with the WSN adapter.  +
BB23.B +QoS Enforcer/IMS enabler product developed in the frame of DEWI. It provides a Linux based software that is able to classify IP traffic and apply different prioritization profile according to the QoS Policies configured. In addition, it also enables the IMS services via SATCOM contributing to the terrestrial and satellite network convergence.  +
BB23.C +Chip manufactorers already provide security modules for different purposes (HSM, TPM). Within SCOTT we want to define guidelines on how to choose and use the right module depending on the application and its requirements w.r.t. power consumption, time, speed etc.  +
BB23.D +Available safety standards (e.g. ISO 26262 for automotive, IEC 61508 for industry in general, etc.) and emerging security process standards (e.g. SAE J3061 for automotive).  +
BB23.E +Usage of satellite spectrum resources implies a considerable cost in terms of capacity reservation to the satellite operator. The ratio that a radio signal modulation can reach between the volume of the data traffic to transmit (in bits per seconds) and the real amount of spectrum occupied (in Hz) depends on the design and the implementation of what it is called the “waveform” (i.e. including physical and mac/link layer of a communication protocol). We can take advantage from the waveform designed and implemented (e.g. Hub modem prototype) in the frame of the ESA Iris program to serve the ATM (Air Traffic Management) traffic. This waveform is burst-to-burst oriented and provide a high efficiency in the use of the spectral resources.  +
BB23.F +Baseline for this Building Block is the current project status of the WSN demonstrator for automotive test-beds in DEWI  +
BB23.G +From the predecessor project DEWI a WSN demonstrator for automotive test-beds is available. The conceptual study on PHY layer security will be based on the features but also the limitations of this demonstrator as well as on the requirements of its application in an automotive test-bed.  +
BB23.H +Deployed systems rely on manual reconfiguration of zones, and policy- based access for individuals. Dynamic configuration of access control in general has not yet been deployed.  +
BB23.I +Transportation vehicles are more and more communicating with their system environment (e.g., by means of V2I communications). Those technologies are suitable to be used for road-rail interactive use cases (e.g. level crossings) as well as for pure railway/road use cases (e.g. ontrack works zones). To show the potential of these technologies the associated required business logic is also developed within this building block.  +
BB23.J +Standard IEEE802.15.4e comes up to deal with the wireless issues in industrial scenarios for WPAN. It supports a highly efficient modulation with channel hopping to avoid interferences, and features a promising technology for MAC: TSCH. Together, they offer a baseline definition to build up different solutions, leaving aspects as the scheduling algorithm to the developers. During last 3 years the scientific community has evaluated these technologies and has detected many issues which still render these technologies as unreliable (see RFC7554), specially in mesh topologies. This building block will be based on aforemetioned technologies with some new developments to get: * Safety (integrity control, local control loop, IEC 61508 and EN 50121 for SW/HW design and development process) * Reliability (mesh topology + deterministic communications, channel hopping + blacklisting, smart error management) * Self-management (pro-active routing resolution, dynamic MAC auto-scheduling for deterministic communications)  +
BB23.K +Nowadays, it is researching in wireless systems and their live reconfiguration based in software defined radio to avoid interferences. Research group has already implemented different algorithms to avoid interference using cognitive radio. The implementation of these algorithms using SDR will be the BB.  +
BB23.L +Multi-modal journey planner, capable of manage multiple criteria in order to cut and sort the individual different optional transport modes and routes (e.g. travel time, distance, cost, energy efficiency and any combination) with timing restrictions and real-time traffic estimation. In the context of SCOTT, we propose the following improvement beyond the state of the art: global optimization given a set of dynamic jobs and travel demand, integration of real-time WSN information to detect incidences,affecting planned schedules and robustness of scheduling techniques, able to manage inherent uncertainties without a global replanning.  +
BB23.M +This building block will start with the “DEWI GW” architecture generated in DEWI. Based on this platform, the Safety WSN Adapter will integrate new technologies to better manage the WSN network, the resources, the safety requirements, the required quality of service and the local loop control. There are no existing solutions for this scenario, as rail systems rely on wired infrastructures, and wireless systems are for no safety critical tasks. Standards IEEE 61508 and EN 50121 will be followed for the HW/SW design and implementation stages, and for the hazards analysis. Some technologies and concepts to be analysed and integrated into the prototype are TSN, OPC-UA, TSCH and QoS management.  +
BB23.N +Numerous different security mechanisms and technologies exist in the IT domain. However, these mechanisms are often to heave to use in wireless networks and embedded systems.  +
BB23.O +There exist many communication security standards, but for sensor networks it is often unclear, which of those standards would really improve the security of their system. This document provides a guide for those.  +
BB23.P +There are localization systems on the market but are dedicated mainly for object position estimation and the correlation between utilizing this information for its authorization and authentication is weak and provide wery simple functionality e.g. access control to certain areas that are physically separated. This block is aimed to show what kind of information from different localization methods can be utilized and how to serve as an additional, reliable authorization and authentication mechanism.  +
BB23.Q +The virtual coupling mechanism is based on new technologies been developed or adapted for railways meaning a breakthrough in the TCMS (Traffic Control and Management System) field. In this sense, the European initiative Shift2Rail will lead the definition and development of the virtual coupling concept and the required technologies, as it is described in its Master Plan. First activities are currently ongoing within the initiative’s lighthouse project Roll2Rail. SCOTT activities associated to this BB and to the wider Smart Train Compositon Coupling Work Package (WP19) will be aligned with the Shift2Rail Programme Virtual Coupling concept and will contribute to this undertaking with innovative mechanisms to guarantee a safe distance between compositions based on reliable WSN technology.  +
BB23.R +Trust in WSNs: The main goal of a typical WSN is to efficiently collect the sensor data and forward it highlight how the data exchange can be secured and malicious nodes can be detected 263 264 265. Other approaches (e.g., 266) propose to use a centralized entity ensuring the trust (again mainly w.r.t. security) in a WSN and omitting different routing attacks such as blackhole and wormhole attacks 267. Besided security some approaches ensurng trust within a WSN also address energy-efficiency as well as network lifetime 268 269 or the network transmission range 270 as key aspects. Although security and especially data confidentiality are critical aspects of industrial WSN applications, also other aspects have to be addressed to ensure a trustworthy data collection. The concepts of the SCOTT Trust Anchor and Trust Indicator will help to build and monitor trust in a WSSN.  +
BB24.A +The baseline of this building block is an existing remote management pilot using the cloud instance EyeSaaS. The implementation is based on TR-069 in Wifi networks. Using XMPP tunnelling, information of the usage of the wireless connections are forwarded to the cloud infrastructure of EyeSaaS. Through the cloud infrastructure a remote monitoring can be performed to identify bottlenecks of the wireless connection.  +
BB24.B +Standardised addressing mechanisms on IP level by IETF, addressing approaches on other layers (PHY, MAC, application layer, ...). Mobility management solutions available in literature.  +
BB24.C +Baseline of this building block are standardized application layer protocols from IETF, OMG, OASIS, etc. as well as utilized protocols in the DEWI project (DEWI bubble level 1 and 2 interconnectivity)  +
BB24.D +This Building Block will start from the Context-aware and reasoning module developed in DEWI, which included the following main components: communications interface (RESTful API, JSON); Big Data storage (HDFS Hive); distributed computing (Spark); Big Data Analytics (Spark MLLib, H2O); alerts engine (WSO2 Complex Event Processor); and front-end (AngularJS, NodeJS, SailsJS). DEWI applied machine learning techniques based on deep learning to predict future measurements and to detect anomalies. SCOTT will adapt the platform’s communication interfaces; data preparation modules; and data analytics techniques according to the new use cases needs. In addition, SCOTT will extend this platform with further data analytics techniques for optimization purposes.  +
BB24.E +Cloud computing is a common metapher for Internet-based access to ressources including hardware and software. Cloud services are software components hosted in the cloud. The baseline uses state of the art technology and W3C standards. However, this building block focuses on secure and trustable cloud services for novel vehicle applications, which is not state of the art yet. The service development will be based on technology available on the market. Technology feasibility for basic components is given, but none of them include all needed functionality for connected mobilty, therefore, built upon existing services, a new service infrastrucure (including e.g. an information model for connected mobility services) has to be developed.  +
BB24.F +Baseline of this building block are standardized and state-of-the-art communication protocols for wireless sensor networks (such as IEEE 802.15.4, TSCH, IETF RPL, IEEE 802.15.1, and Bluetooth Smart) as well as time synchronization systems and algorithms for traditional IP networks (e.g., Simple Network Time Protocol, Precision Time Protocol, and Global Positioning System) and tailored to wireless sensor networks (e.g., Reference Broadcast Synchronization, Timing-Sync Protocol for Sensor Networks, Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol, PulseSync, and Glossy).  +
BB24.G +Available standards of mobile edge computing by 3GPP/ETSI.  +
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