Spoof proof CSAC SMACC - a spoofing resilient GPS clock

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Spoof proof CSAC SMACC - a spoofing resistant GPS clock

by Aril Schultzen
Supervisor(s) Sverre Holm, Harald Hauglin
Due date 2015/09
Status Ongoing
Problem description: The main goal of this master project is program a controller (SMACC – smart

miniature atomic clock controller) which will complement a commercial GPS controlled clock so that it becomes ‘spoof proof’, i.e. hardened against GPS jamming and spoofing attacks. The project will use a multifactorial approach to evaluate the validity/integrity of received GPS signals, based on a number of GPS observables as well as clock correction modelling. In particular, the project will use the stability of a CSAC1 (chip scale atomic clock) to build resilience against a certain class of ‘seamless’ GPS spoofing attacks2. Moreover, the stability of the CSAC will provide enhanced autonomous operation in the case of a spoofing or jamming attacks. The spoof proof CSAC SMACC will be tested against spoofing scenarios generated by a GNSS simulator.

Methods and Tools: The tools and methods in this thesis are based on
  • A set of scenario, describing the challenges
  • A list of requirements being extracted from the scenarios
  • A description and evaluation of technologies and tools being candidates for solutions
  • A functional architecture/description of the envisaged system
  • An implementation of the core concepts
  • A demonstration of the solution
  • An evaluation of the solution, including a critical review of the descisions taken earlier
  • Conclusions
  • References
Time schedule The envisaged time schedule (for a long thesis/60 ECTS) is:
T0 0 starting month, T0+m denotes the month where the contribution to a certain chapter shalle be finalized
T0+2 months: create an initial page describing the scenario
T0+3: Provide a list of technologies which you think are necessary for the thesis
T0+4: Establish the table of content (TOC) of the envisaged thesis. Each section shall contain 3-10 keywords describing the content of that section
T0+7: Provide a draft of section 2 (scenario) and 3 (technologies)
T0+10: Establish a draft on what to implement/architecture
T0+11: Set-up an implementation, testing and evaluation plan
T0+15: Evaluate your solution based on a set of parameters, keep in mind there is no such thing as a free lunch
T0+17: Deliver the thesis
Pre-Knowledge This thesis includes a reasonable amount of programming. The envisaged thesis is based on radio communications, thus expects the user to have followed at least two radio-related courses
Approved Approved by
Keywords GPS jamming, GPS spoofing, atomic clock, synchronization
Depiction

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Background: Timing – in the form accurate and stable reference frequencies and/or accurate time stamps referenced to UTC – is a critical and valuable information asset in industrial control systems and IT infrastructure. Accurate timing is very often generated by GPS disciplined clocks – in which ‘low grade’ or inaccurate clocks are being continuously steered/corrected by GPS signals. A properly operating GPS disciplined clock will have the long term accuracy and stability of the atomic clocks of the GPS time scale, at an insignificant cost. However, since a GPS antenna needs a clear view of the sky and since the civil GPS code structure is known, GPS based timing may be viewed as an unencrypted and physically unsecured port into valuable infrastructure. The methods employed by a time hacker may include jamming - denial of access to GPS corrections by excessive radio noise - or spoofing - injection of malicious code in the form of transmission of GPS signals containing misleading information.

This master project will exploit a number of GPS and clock observables in order to detect and resist a number of different types of GPS hacking attacks.