UNIK4700/9700-Introduction

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UNIK4700/9700-Introduction

Course UNIK4700, UNIK9700
Title Introduction
Lecture date 2017/08/22 1300-1600, room 308@UNIK
presented by Josef Noll, Maghsoud Morshedi
Objective This lecture provides an introduction to the topic. It will address* Radio* Systems* MobilityThe lecture will also include details on the expected outcome, the deliverables and the (optional) exam
Learning outcomes Having joined this lecture, you will
  • have an impression on where to focus
  • have an impression on the topics being discussed in this course
  • get an impression on what is expected from you in terms of deliverables (presentation, papers)
  • understand how to search for literature on IEEE and ACM
Pensum (read before) You should have registered for this course :-)

Please read also how to search for literature: Search_for_literature

References (further info) References:
Keywords Radio, Mobility, Mobile Systems, Capacity, Sustainability Goals

this page was created by Special:FormEdit/Lecture, and can be edited by Special:FormEdit/Lecture/UNIK4700/9700-Introduction.


About the course

Motivation, Introduction and Topics, see Media:UNIK4700-L1-Overview.pdf

Regarding assignments

  • give us a month before assignment
  • Alternatives: a) selected papers Choose
  • or b) own topic


Other info

Lecture Notes




Title
UNIK4700 Introduction
Author
Josef Noll
Footer
UNIK4700/9700-Introduction
Subfooter
UNIK4700


⌘ Overview UNIK4700, UNIK9700

Radio and Mobility

Goal of the course,

  • what to achieve
  • how to achieve it

Examen

    • what to I expect



⌘Meeting calendar

based on

  • your topics
  • the goal we want to achieve


⌘ What to achieve

Academic work

  • how we build up list of references
  • modelling approach
  • detailed list of topic (next slide)

⌘Examen

  • Presentation of research topic (mandatory), home work on comparison of selected topics (60 %) and simulation work (40 %).
  • The student may ask for an oral exam in which case the home work on comparison of selected topics counts 50%, the simulation work 30% and the oral exam 20%.

Mandatory

  • knowledge of presentation material - "how you presented"
  • presentation and analysis of 3-4 papers
  • programming of user, context....


⌘Evaluation/Grade

Expectations for your presentation

  • Define what to present
  • Present it such that your colleagues can understand
  • Facts/Reference-based presentation
  • Evaluate your own work
  • Checklist
    • relevant for the course
    • understandable
    • your own evaluation
    • scientific: "Don't guess, present references"


Character, Exam

For your own presentation

  • focus, focus, focus - be aware of what you want to present, and what not
  • make sure the others will understand what you present
  • come up with challenges/unsolved issues/your expectation towards that technology

not basis for grade are

  • questions during lectures

Alternativer

  • evtl "mini-eksamen" i slutten av hver time, spørsmål om spesielle områder

⌘ Goals Radio

  • Understand that "radio is not just another IP connection"
  • Set-up a good course
  • Involve you in giving the course

Radio

  • get a basic understanding of radio communication
  • can explain the characteristics of radio propagation
  • get a feeling for wave propagation and the attenuation

⌘Goals Mobility

  • identify the factors for mobility management
  • know the characteristics of current mobility schemes
  • address topics in current research

Mandatory

  • knowledge of presentation material
  • presentation and analysis of 3-4 papers
  • simulation

Evaluation (draft)

  • presentation of topics (own work)
  • simulation results
  • optional: (final exam)

⌘ Assigned topics

List of assignments UNIK4700:Assignments


Building .... Networks
History, Now and Future
History
Pioneers: Maxwell, Hertz,...
1G, 2G,... 5G networks
Frequencies and Standards
Future Challenges
A-Basics of Communication
Electromagnetic Signals
Radio Communication Principles
Digital communication: Signal/Noise Ratio
Signal strength and Capacity: Shannon
B-Antennas and Propagation
Free Space Propagation
Antennas, Gain, Radiation Pattern
Multipath Propagation, Reflection, Diffraction
Attenuation, Scattering
Interference and Fading (Rayleigh, Rician, …)
Mobile Communication dependencies
C-Propagation models
Environments (indoor, outdoor to indoor, vehicular)
Outdoor (Lee, Okumura, Hata, COST231 models)
Indoor (One-slope, multiwall, linear attenuation)
D-System Comparison
Proximity: RFID, NFC
Short Range: ZigBee, Bluetooth, ANT+,...
WLAN/Wifi/802.11...
Mobile: GSM, UMTS, IMT-A (WiMAX, LTE)
E-Mobility
Mobile Network mobility
IP mobility
F-Network Building
5G and Future Networks
5G Heterogeneous Networks
Basic Internet
Video Distribution Networks
Coverage simulations
Coverage simulations
Traffic simulations
Network Capacity simulations
Building .... Networks

Disclaimer: This compendium provides information on aspects of radio wave propagation, antennas, system aspects, and handover schemes for mobile and wireless systems. The compendium is foreseen for the UNIK4700 course on Building Mobile and Wireless Networks, and is kept on the system aspects level. UNIK has several courses on Radio and Network technologies as part of the Wireless Networks and Security (WNaS) research area.

UNIK 4700 Building Mobile and Wireless Networks

⌘ History and Future

⌘ TOC - Basics of Communication

⌘TOC - Antennas and Propagation

What have we learned?

  • antenna characteristics and gain
  • what happens if I double the frequency (900 - 1800 - 2400 MHz)?
  • minimum GSM receiver sensitivity
  • typical receiver power at 900 MHz (GSM channel sounder - rural)
  • typical received power at 1800 MHz (GSM channel sounder - rural)
  • difference City - rural - indoor
  • principal operation of MIMO

⌘TOC - Propagation models

⌘TOC System Comparison

⌘TOC - Mobility

⌘TOC - Network Building


⌘The five myths of wireless

  1. Wi-Fi is faster than Ethernet. While the raw data rate of Wi-Fi (11 Mbps) may be faster than the original Ethernet (10 Mbps), Wi-Fi's throughput efficiency is always less. Why?
  2. The longer the transmission range, the better. That may be true for some wireless communications, but for wireless LANs, a greater transmission range often results in more users per cell and lower per-user throughput. Why?
  3. Wireless networks can be dangerous to your health. Almost all wireless LANs have radio output levels of less than 100 milliwatts (20 dBm). Is output power the real measure?
  4. 802.11g will make 802.11a obsolete. Lots of people think that 802.11g will kill 802.11a because it offers the same data rate as 802.11a (54 Mbps) plus backward compatibility with 802.11b. Other factors?
  5. Wireless LANs are inherently insecure. Yes, there are security issues with the original 802.11b specification, but there are plenty of ways, including the use of VPNs and security gateways, to make wireless as secure as wired. True?

Note: 802.11 is sending with different speeds for header and payload. Header is always transmitted at lowest speed, why?

⌘TOC on AA1-History

Building .... Networks
History, Now and Future
History
Pioneers: Maxwell, Hertz,...
1G, 2G,... 5G networks
Frequencies and Standards
Future Challenges
A-Basics of Communication
Electromagnetic Signals
Radio Communication Principles
Digital communication: Signal/Noise Ratio
Signal strength and Capacity: Shannon
B-Antennas and Propagation
Free Space Propagation
Antennas, Gain, Radiation Pattern
Multipath Propagation, Reflection, Diffraction
Attenuation, Scattering
Interference and Fading (Rayleigh, Rician, …)
Mobile Communication dependencies
C-Propagation models
Environments (indoor, outdoor to indoor, vehicular)
Outdoor (Lee, Okumura, Hata, COST231 models)
Indoor (One-slope, multiwall, linear attenuation)
D-System Comparison
Proximity: RFID, NFC
Short Range: ZigBee, Bluetooth, ANT+,...
WLAN/Wifi/802.11...
Mobile: GSM, UMTS, IMT-A (WiMAX, LTE)
E-Mobility
Mobile Network mobility
IP mobility
F-Network Building
5G and Future Networks
5G Heterogeneous Networks
Basic Internet
Video Distribution Networks
Coverage simulations
Coverage simulations
Traffic simulations
Network Capacity simulations
Building .... Networks

⌘The real researchers

HeinrichHertz.png
  • Michael Faraday (1791 - 1867), focussing on the static fields
  • James Clerk Maxwell (1831 - 1879), establishing the Maxwell equations for the interaction of the electrical and the magnetic component of an electromagnetic wave
  • Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857 - 1894) experimented the theory for the understanding of electromagnetic waves

[Source:Magne Pettersen, Wikipedia]

⌘Heinrich Hertz - The electromagnectic wave

HertzWaves.png Hertz did not realise the practical importance of his experiments. He stated that, "It's of no use whatsoever[...] this is just an experiment that proves Maestro Maxwell was right - we just have these mysterious electromagnetic waves that we cannot see with the naked eye. But they are there." [3]

Asked about the ramifications of his discoveries, Hertz replied, "Nothing, I guess." [3]

Note

The experiments, demonstrating the relation between the electrical and the magnetic component of the electromagnetic wave, was probably the most important discovery of Heinrich Hertz.

⌘Inventor: Guglielmo Marconi

Marconi watching associates raise kite antenna at St. John's, December, 1901 Guglielmo Marconi (1874 - 1937) experimented with Hertz waves in 1894/1895

  • used 50000 UK pound on a transatlantic experiment in 1901
  • brought electromagnetics to life

[Source:Magne Pettersen, Wikipedia]

Note: Marconi

The first experiment failed, as a storm took down the antenna, and Marconi got bankrupt. But he managed to establish new funds for the first transatlantic communication based on radio signals. Recommended reading https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi

⌘Inventor: Antonio Meucci

Drawing of phone communication Antonio Meucci

  • Invented the phone in 1856
  • transferred voice from one room to another one
  • surveillance of an ill person
  • registered patent in 1871
    • failed to name "electromagnetics"
    • Graham Bell patented in 1876


[Source: Sandra Meucci, "Antonio and the electric scream: The man who invented the telephone", Branden Books, 2010]

⌘The real researchers - Graham Bell

BellRadio.png

  • Graham Bell (1874 -1922) invented the phone,...
  • but who invented also the mobile phone back in 1924?

Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study

[Source:Magne Pettersen, Wikipedia]

⌘AA2-Mobile Generations

Building .... Networks
History, Now and Future
History
Pioneers: Maxwell, Hertz,...
1G, 2G,... 5G networks
Frequencies and Standards
Future Challenges
A-Basics of Communication
Electromagnetic Signals
Radio Communication Principles
Digital communication: Signal/Noise Ratio
Signal strength and Capacity: Shannon
B-Antennas and Propagation
Free Space Propagation
Antennas, Gain, Radiation Pattern
Multipath Propagation, Reflection, Diffraction
Attenuation, Scattering
Interference and Fading (Rayleigh, Rician, …)
Mobile Communication dependencies
C-Propagation models
Environments (indoor, outdoor to indoor, vehicular)
Outdoor (Lee, Okumura, Hata, COST231 models)
Indoor (One-slope, multiwall, linear attenuation)
D-System Comparison
Proximity: RFID, NFC
Short Range: ZigBee, Bluetooth, ANT+,...
WLAN/Wifi/802.11...
Mobile: GSM, UMTS, IMT-A (WiMAX, LTE)
E-Mobility
Mobile Network mobility
IP mobility
F-Network Building
5G and Future Networks
5G Heterogeneous Networks
Basic Internet
Video Distribution Networks
Coverage simulations
Coverage simulations
Traffic simulations
Network Capacity simulations
Building .... Networks

⌘History of wireless communications

From1Gto3G.png

while 1G and 2G were all about radio interfaces,

  • 3G and Beyond 3G (B3G) are all about services
  • 4G is using mobile broadband everywhere
  • 5G will be truly heterogeneous network


Comments

Technology acceptance curve

⌘Speed of technology

TechnologyAdvances.png

  • "There might be a need for 5 computers" (1943 Watson(?), 1951 Hartree)
  • Mobile: NMT, GSM, GPRS, EDGE, UMTS, 3G, HSDPA, SMS, EMS, MMS,... DVB-H,...

Comments

L1-4.png Future communication systems, composed of IMT-A (ground), High altitude platform (HAP) and satellite


%Wireless standardisation forums

  • ITU-T
  • ETSI
  • IEEE
  • 3GPP (3G Partnership Project) and 3GPP2
  • Bluetooth SIG, zigbee alliance

and a lot of others addressing interworking

  • OMA (open mobile alliance)
  • UMTS forum
  • ...


⌘Frequency spectrum

FrequencySpecs.png

⌘Wireless technologies

BluetoothSpecs.png

Ultra short range

  • RFID, NFC

Vicinity

  • Bluetooth, WiMedia,
  • Zigbee, ANT+, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)

Local area

  • Wireless LAN, 802.11 family
  • Wireless telephony: DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications)

Mobile Communications:

  • 1G: NMT
  • 2G: GSM
  • 3G: UMTS
  • 4G: LTE - IMT-A
  • 5G

Long Range Wide Area Network (LPWAN)

  • LoRa,
  • Sigfox,
  • Ingenu-RPMA,
  • DASH7,
  • Weightless

Mobile satellite communication:

  • Geostationary (Inmarsat A, C, M) or low orbit (e.g. Iridium)

⌘Trend: Personal Networks

Interconnectivity
  • Between devices
  • To your neighbour
  • create spontaneous networks (and your personal sphere)
  • access everyware
  • access from all devices
  • access for everyone
    • availability
    • affordability (price)
EricPersonalNetwork-b.png

⌘Expectations towards global coverage

  • According to Ericsson, Mobile Technologies are available for 50% of the world's population (2013), and the coverage will increase to 75% by 2017.
  • According to Internet.org (Facebook, Opera Software, ....), only 1/3 of the world's population has access to the Internet (2013).
  • An extrapolation by the Basic Internet Foundation points out that even in 2017 about 45% of the population will not have access to Internet, mainly due to affordability. Thus they promote the free access to basic information of the Internet, being text and pictures.


Building .... Networks
History, Now and Future
History
Pioneers: Maxwell, Hertz,...
1G, 2G,... 5G networks
Frequencies and Standards
Future Challenges
A-Basics of Communication
Electromagnetic Signals
Radio Communication Principles
Digital communication: Signal/Noise Ratio
Signal strength and Capacity: Shannon
B-Antennas and Propagation
Free Space Propagation
Antennas, Gain, Radiation Pattern
Multipath Propagation, Reflection, Diffraction
Attenuation, Scattering
Interference and Fading (Rayleigh, Rician, …)
Mobile Communication dependencies
C-Propagation models
Environments (indoor, outdoor to indoor, vehicular)
Outdoor (Lee, Okumura, Hata, COST231 models)
Indoor (One-slope, multiwall, linear attenuation)
D-System Comparison
Proximity: RFID, NFC
Short Range: ZigBee, Bluetooth, ANT+,...
WLAN/Wifi/802.11...
Mobile: GSM, UMTS, IMT-A (WiMAX, LTE)
E-Mobility
Mobile Network mobility
IP mobility
F-Network Building
5G and Future Networks
5G Heterogeneous Networks
Basic Internet
Video Distribution Networks
Coverage simulations
Coverage simulations
Traffic simulations
Network Capacity simulations
Building .... Networks


⌘ Comparison of communication technologies

FettweisRadioDevelopment-Comparison.png

[Presentation G. Fettweis, IEEE VTC forum Baltimore], http://www.ieeevtc.org/plenaries/vtc2007fall/28.pdf


⌘ Wireless network types

MobilityVersusSpeed-a.png

⌘Handset challenges - today

FettweisHandset-today.png

[Presentation G. Fettweis, IEEE VTC forum Baltimore], http://www.ieeevtc.org/plenaries/vtc2007fall/28.pdf

⌘Handset challenges - tomorrow

FettweisHandset-tomorrow.png

[Presentation G. Fettweis, IEEE VTC forum Baltimore], http://www.ieeevtc.org/plenaries/vtc2007fall/28.pdf


Note: G. Fettweis has focus on radio technology, not on applications and "costs" for usage. In the application area, NFC is a replacement of contactless cards for payment, using the same security mechanisms. With respect to "sensor networks" and low energy consumption, the limitations to UWB+ will not fulfil those needs.


⌘Summary

Focus on three communication areas

  • ultra short range, e.g. NFC
  • vicinity, e.g. Bluetooth
  • local area, e.g. WLAN
  • mobile communications, e.g. LTE